99. (95) JAUME MUNAR (ESP) 593Barty continues to be chief and Garbiñe stays sixteenthAustralian tennis participant Ashleigh Barty continues for one more week at the head of the WTA world rating, adopted by Romanian Simona Halep and Czech Karolina Pliskova, in a classification during which the Spanish Garbiñe Muguruza stays in the sixteenth place it reached after being a finalist in the Australian Open on February 1.The Australian maintains a distinction of 506 factors over quantity two and continues to ship in a classification that presents sure adjustments in the prime ten. The Swiss Belinda Bencic climbs a place and locations fourth, snatching the web site to the Ukrainian Elina Svitolina, which falls to sixth place, leaving the Canadian Bianca Andreescu fifth between the two.On the different hand, the week has been destructive for the different three Spaniards in the world ‘Prime 100’. Canarian Carla Suarez goes down 4 steps to place 59, whereas Sara Sorribes from Castellón falls from place 78 to 80 and the Catalan Paula Badosa (93) loses a place.Classification of the WTA as of February 171. (1) Ashleigh Barty (AUS) 8,367 factors.2. (2) Simona Halep (RUM) 5,796.3. (3) Karolina Pliskova (RCH) 5,290.4. (5) Belinda Bencic (SUI) 4,720.5. (6) Bianca Andreescu (CAN) 4,665.6. (4) Elina Svitolina (UCR) 4,650.7. (7) Sofia Kenin (USA) 4,495.8. (8) Kiki Bertens (PBA) 4,335.9. (9) Serena Williams (USA) 3,915.10. (10) Naomi Osaka (JAP) 3,626.… / …16. (16) GARBIÑE MUGURUZA (ESP) 2,527.59. (55) CARLA SUAREZ (ESP) 994.80. (78) SARA SORRIBES (ESP) 767.93. (92) PAULA BADOSA (ESP) 698. Serbian tennis participant Novak Djokovic stays at the head of the ATP world rating forward of Spaniard Rafa Nadal, after per week with out adjustments in the prime 10 of the classification and during which the Swiss Stan Wawrinka falls three positions till the 19th and the Canadian Felix Auger-Aliassime improves three, till the eighteenth, amongst the prime 20.Djokovic, who recovered primary after successful the Australian Open, the first ‘huge’ of the 2020 season, maintains a 325-point revenue over Nadal, identical margin as final week, and each have greater than 2,000 of benefit over Roger Federer, who closes the podium on the record.As well as, Spanish tennis retains a complete of ten gamers amongst the prime 100 on the planet, with Roberto Bautista sustaining his twelfth place, Pablo Carreño climbing three positions and inserting twenty-seventh and Albert Ramos rising from place 42 to 41.Classification of the ATP as of February 171. (1) Novak Djokovic (SRB) 9,720 factors.2. (2) RAFAEL NADAL (ESP) 9,395.3. (3) Roger Federer (SUI) 7.130.4. (4) Dominic Thiem (AUT) 7.045.5. (5) Daniil Medvedev (RUS) 5,890.6. (6) Stefanos Tsitsipas (GRE) 4.745.7. (7) Alexander Zverev (ALE) 3,885.8. (8) Matteo Berrettini (ITA) 2,860.9. (9) Gael Monfils (FRA) 2,860.10. (10) David Goffin (BEL) 2,600.… / …12. (12) ROBERTO BAUTISTA (ESP) 2.360.27. (30) PABLO CARREÑO (ESP) 1,500.41. (42) ALBERT RAMOS (ESP) 1,130.49. (47) FERNANDO VERDASCO (ESP) 1,000.53. (51) FELICIANO LOPEZ (ESP) 953.59. (58) PAUL ANDUJAR (ESP) 887.90. (89) ALEJANDRO DAVIDOVICH (ESP) 655.93. (88) ROBERTO CARBALLÉS (ESP) 639.
Judy Ann’s 1st project for 2020 is giving her a ‘stomachache’ ‘High crimes and misdemeanors’: Trump impeachment trial begins Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil Former New York Yankees second baseman Homer Bush (22) takes a photograph of teammates from the 1998 season with their World Series championship trophy during a ceremony prior to a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Toronto Blue Jays, Saturday, Aug. 18, 2018, in New York. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)NEW YORK — Mariano Rivera, Andy Pettitte and Jorge Posada returned to the Bronx on Saturday for the New York Yankees’ celebration of their 1998 World Series championship team.Darryl Strawberry and former manager Joe Torre also attended the ceremony before New York’s game against the Toronto Blue Jays. Derek Jeter did not make the trip because of his daughter Bella’s first birthday, but sent a video message for the fans.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Mourinho says Man City ‘disrespectful’ in documentary LATEST STORIES Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next DepEd’s Taal challenge: 30K students displaced Gov’t in no rush to rescue animals in Taal Will you be the first P16 Billion Powerball jackpot winner from the Philippines? Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Palace OKs total deployment ban on Kuwait OFWs Peza offers relief to ecozone firms MOST READ The impressive 1998 season for the Yankees “wasn’t the big thing for me,” Rivera said. “The next 11 wins was the thing to wrap up everything. Seattle won 116, but they didn’t win the championship. The season is there but is erased.”So that is the challenge for Boston as it threatens the wins record this year. Members of the 1998 Yankees say it doesn’t mean very much without a title.“At the end of the day, if you don’t win, you don’t remember.” Posada said.The major league-leading Red Sox began the day with an 87-36 record. They need 30 wins over their last 39 games to break the record.“They’re a great team. They’ve been playing really well,” said Torre, who managed the Yankees for 12 seasons, winning four championships. “But I tell you what, when you get to postseason, there is a whole lot of pressure on you. As proven by Seattle in ’01, you have to remind people that they did that because they didn’t go anywhere. They won the division, but they didn’t beat us.”ADVERTISEMENT Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Jeter, a one-time fixture at Yankee Stadium ceremonies, hasn’t made a public appearance at his longtime home since becoming the chief executive officer of the Miami Marlins.The 1998 Yankees finished with a then-AL record 114 wins and added 11 more in the postseason to set a major league record with 125 victories. New York swept San Diego to win the World Series.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSJapeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for GinebraSPORTSTim Cone still willing to coach Gilas but admits decision won’t be ‘simple yes or no’The 1906 Chicago Cubs hold the National League record with 116 wins, but they lost to the Chicago White Sox in the World Series. The Seattle Mariners broke New York’s record just three seasons later, matching the Cubs’ total, but they were eliminated by the Yankees in the AL Championship Series in five games.Of the top 11 teams on baseball’s single-season wins list, Seattle is the only one to fall short of the World Series. View comments
Liberia is one very blessed country! Why we are not among the most highly developed in our sub-Region is hard to answer.One manifestation of these blessing is our forests. After all these years of logging, Liberia is, according to Forestry Development Authority (FDA) Managing Director Harrison Karnwea, still the only country in the sub-Region with 43 percent of its forests intact. Intensive logging in Liberia began during the Tubman administration. Some Liberians remember filmmaker Bill Alexander’s famous documentary on Liberian forests, “Wealth in Wood.” It was produced in collaboration with the then Department of Information and Cultural Affairs (DICA), headed by Secretary E. Reginald Townsend. He commissioned many other documentaries on Liberia and, along with cultural icon Bai T. Moore, created the National Cultural Center at Kindejah and the National Cultural Troupe, which won worldwide acclaim. Townsend was also part of the decision making that created the Ducor Intercontinental Hotel, West Africa’s first five-star hotel. The Ducor was supposed to have spearheaded the launching of tourism in Liberia and West Africa—but. He also initiated the creation of the Liberian Broadcasting System, the training of scores of Liberian media and artistic personnel and the production of numerous books on Liberia. But both of these men were mistreated by the Liberian government. Bai T. was summarily removed from his job as Deputy Secretary for Culture, without even a pension. But Mr. Townsend got the worst of it—he was executed by firing squad following the 1980 coup d’état!Sometimes these diversions are necessary for historical purposes. Now back to Liberia’s forests.Last week President Pro Tempore of the Liberian Senate, Armah Jallah, expressed concern that Liberian logging activities had “ceased,” leading to interruption in related development activities such as jobs and the construction and maintenance of roads. The Senator made his comments when he received a visiting Montana State Legislator, Dave Hagstrom, who offered to introduce hydro-electric power in Gbarpolu County. Mr. Hagstrom said in his native State of Montana, people purchase electricity at only 9 cents, compared to 53 cents per kilowatt in Liberia.It was not clear why Senator Jallah, during that conversation, jumped from cheap electricity to logging. Was Mr. Hagstrom interested in logging?Mr. hagstrom’s push for mini hydros is one of this newspaper’s constant themes. In Monday’s editorial we wondered why Liberia was not using its many rivers to produce cheap electricity. So far there is only one up-country town producing hydro-electricity— in Yandehun, Kolahun District, and Lofa County. President Sirleaf dedicated it early last year. Our Correspondent Alaskai Johnson, who coveredVice President Boakai’s Lofa visit last week, also visited Yandehum where Alaskai observed that the town was enjoying electricity “24-7.”We hope Mr. Hagstrom will fulfill his Gbarpolu plan. This will encourage government to exploit our rivers and extend cheap power throughout the country.FDA’s Managing Director was quick to react to Pro Temp Jallah’s concern of alleged cessation of logging in Liberia. Far from it, said Mr. Karnwea, logging is ongoing. In interviews with this newspaper, he named several logging companies engaged in Liberia. The Daily Observer then asked what was the status of GOL’s agreement with Norway. It is due to take effect this year, with Liberia standing to gain US$150 million for preserving its forestry reserves and promoting the campaign against carbon omissions. That agreement is on course and comes into effect this year. Mr. Karnwea then gave some details on the country’s forestry reserves. The largest is the SAPO National Reserve; then the East Nimba, between Nimba and Gedeh Counties; Lake Piso in Grand Cape Mount; and the Gola Forest between Grand Cape Mount and Gbarpolu.Mr. Karnwea further stated that the FDA is working on legislation for other forest reserves—the Wani Gizi in Lofa, the Grebo Forest in Grand Gedeh and River Gee Counties, the Kpelleh Forest between Gbarpolu and Bong Counties and the Sanquin in Grand Kru and Sinoe Counties, etc. It is a fact that Liberia is rich in forest reserves, which are thankfully in place. Several of them still have elephants and other wildlife, enhancing Liberia’s vast tourism potential. Hopefully soon, the President will find someone who can successfully organize tourism and Liberia would finally be on its way to reap its long delayed tourism bonanza. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Trans Guyana Airways has seen an increase in the number of flights heading to Suriname after the ferry service which usually plies this route has been temporarily suspended. The company’s Director of Operations, Bale King, told a media conference on Friday that while an increase has been noticed, the demand for trips to the neighbouring country has not sky-rocketed to the point where it triggered additional flights.He was keen to note that many persons have been using the “back track” system into the country, since the services of the Canawaima Ferry encountered mechanical issues and was grounded.On May 27, services of the ferry were officially suspended, preventing it from plying the Moleson Creek, Guyana – Nickerie, Suriname route.Last week, Public Infrastructure Minister, David Patterson told Guyana Times that the jointly owned vessel was scheduled to undergo repairs by Surinamese, but although they promised to have it up and running in two months, the boat is still inoperable, leaving persons to use an alternative route, which some say are not safe.He confirmed that services are yet to be resumed as no alternative is in place.Patterson in a previous interview told this publication that the vessel was being powered by a tug for some time now which has encountered some issues.A few days later, it was announced that the <<
…licence has to be amendedThe Guyana Power and Light (GPL) Incorporated on Sunday said it is unable to purchase power from any private company due to its existing licence, which it plans to amend.In a notice published in one of the daily newspapers, the company explained that its licence restricts it from purchasing power from any producer other than independent power producers (IPP) which produce electricity from renewable energy sources.Further, GPL said, “IPP, as defined under the Act, does not include businesses whose main business is not the generation of power, and which supply no more than 10 MW”.The company added that it is aware that persons are interested in supplying their excess generation capacity to GPL’s grid, and Government is willing to enter an agreement in this regard, but the existing licence remains a barrier.“The Government and GPL are desirous of facilitating distributed generation in a manner that is consistent with GPL’s generation and expansion plans, and with the country’s Green State Development Strategy (GSDS) which recommends the opportunity for consumers, small and large scale businesses to supply their excess generation to public suppliers,” GPL said in the notice.Against this backdrop, the power company said, Public Infrastructure Minister David Patterson has proposed an amendment to Section 15 of GPL’s Licence, which will allow the company to purchase the excess generation capacity of its consumers, self-generators and other businesses, where feasible and consistent with the company’s generation requirements for interconnection to its grid.The notice added that the public may make “representations and or objections” to the proposal by submitting their views to the Minister no later than October 6, 2019.This revelation comes at a time when two major private companies, namely Banks DIH Limited and Giftland Mall, have expressed interest in supplying power to the embattled state agency. The two entities are powering their own operations using heavy fuel oil, and each has substantial capacity in this regard.In fact, only last month, proprietor of Giftland Mall, Roy Beepat, in a statement to the media, voiced concerns over GPL’s unwillingness to accept the Giftland offer to supply it with electricity. His statement came two months after making his interest known in this regard. At that time, the businessman had pointed out that Giftland had been receiving numerous complaints and questions as to why there are still occasional power outages. He noted that, a few months ago, persons who thought the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) was about to be signed with GPL had also been congratulating Giftland.Giftland have also insisted that, contrary to reports, they can supply the required power at whatever time slots are required.“We stand by our statement that a dedicated 3MW is available, and we can supply up to 4.5MW as required. We are not sure what further justification is required to show why this can withstand any scrutiny. Our prices are competitive and better than power supplied by GPL diesel generators. The supply is available without any expenditure to GPL (and) without commitment for long-term supplies. We look forward to some response as to why this Agreement cannot be concluded,” the company had said.The Government’s Department of Public Information (DPI) had reported in June of this year that GPL and Giftland had concluded a Power Purchase Agreement for the supply of five megawatts of power, and that all that was being awaited was ratification of this agreement by the new GPL Board.Giftland Mall had, since 2016, offered to sell Government its excess electricity, but this was rejected. At a press conference in June, GPL CEO Albert Gordon had explained that buying power from an independent power producer (IPP) is a complicated issue which includes negotiating pricing and legal matters.But, more recently, the issue of GPL purchasing power has become more important with two of its submarine cables sustaining damage by vessels.One of the cables has already been restored, and the subject minister has promised that the second damaged cable would be repaired soon.
Buncrana GAA Notes For Week Ending Sunday 10th FebruaryMembership: Club membership for the upcoming year can now be paid. Adult membership is €100 (including weekly lotto entry), Student membership is €50 and child membership is €20 (€50 for 3 children or more). Dates of registration nights for juvenile members will be confirmed soon, and all information will be made available through facebook, twitter and the club notes. For further details please contact Grainne Soal at firstname.lastname@example.org. Senior and Reserve Football: The Senior footballers began the 2013 season on Saturday night, with an Ulster Club league fixture against Lamh Dearg of Belfast. It was a good all round performance on the night from the squad, with the game finishing as a draw, 1-8 to 1-8. A number of minor players made their senior debuts and impressed on the night, including Caolan McGonigle, Stephen Doherty, Bruce Waldron, and John Campbell. Training will continue each Tuesday and Friday at 7.30pm and on Sundays at 11.00am. All new and returning players who are over the age of 16 and wish to play in Division 2 this year are invited to attend.U5 and U6 Gaelic Games: Under 5s and 6s sessions continues on Saturday mornings at 11.15am sharp in Crana College. The sessions are based on GAA Fundamentals; a Croke Park initiative based on European wide research aimed at bettering your child’s coordination (including hand eye) balance, agility and basic fitness in a fun filled environment. It is also an introduction into the basic skills of Gaelic games This is for children turning 5 or 6 years of age in 2013 and all are welcome. U8 Hurling: U8 Hurling will continue on Wednesday 16th January at 5.30-6.30pm in Crana College. Newcomers are always welcome to come along and learn the basic skills of Hurling in a fun, safe environment.U8 Football: U8 Football will continue on Friday at 6.30pm, new members are always welcome.U12 Football: U12 training will start back on Tuesday 12th of February at 7.00pm. The training times are as follows: Tuesday 7-8pm and Friday 7-8.30pm. Mouthguards are now compulsory for all training as well as matches. Newcomers are always welcome to come along and learn the basic skills of Gaelic football in a fun, safe environment.U12 Hurling: Our U12 Hurlers played the first round of the Derry Donegal indoor airbourne competition in Letterkenny this weekend. There were three games against St. Eunan’s A, Na Magha and Burt A. Buncrana won two games and drew one, which was an excellent result. Good luck to Caolan O’Neill, Cathal Óg Wilson, Liam O’Doherty, Leah Mc Daid, Gavin Deehan, Oisin Kelly and Ryan Hegarty, as they head to Dungiven next week for round two.U14 Hurling: U14 Hurling training takes place on Thursday at 6.00pm and Saturday at 3.00pm. New players are always welcome.Girls Football: Girls football training is on Monday night at 7.00pm sharp. Open to all girls from the ages of 9 to 16 years of age. New players are also welcome. Please bring your own water bottle.Pictures of Sam: Pictures of an evening with Sam Maguire are available for collection at Elite Appliances. For further details please contact John Peter at 0749322600.Coaching: There will be a foundation coaching course taking place in Febuary/March in the club. It involves doing a child protection course for 2 hours on the Friday evening and doing coaching theory and practical for 5 hours on the Saturday. It is a good opportunity for young and old to gain some coaching qualifications, and will be especially useful for younger members who are enrolled on a sports related course at college/university. Lotto: The winning numbers in the lotto draw, which took place on Tuesday 28th January in O’Flaherty’s Bar on the Main Street, are as follows: 8-14-23-32There was no jackpot winner this week, however prizes of €20 go to each of the following participants:Aidan Mc Callum, Cruiskeen LawnSiobhan Mc Cracken, Grianan Park J.D. TrillickCathy Coughlan, 55 Cloncool ParkLee Magee, St. Oran’s RoadClub Notes: Anyone who would like to receive a copy of the weekly club notes should email Oisín at email@example.com to be included on the mailing list. If you have any items which you think should be included in the club’s weekly notes, please email Oisín at firstname.lastname@example.org by 6pm on each Sunday for consideration. To keep up to date with all the latest goings-on, please join us on www.facebook.com/buncranagaa or www.twitter.com/buncranagaa @buncranagaaGAA NEWS: BUNCRANA CLUB NOTES was last modified: February 3rd, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:buncrana gaa club notes
Due to the popularity of their ‘Muckabout Camps’ Gartan Outdoor Education Centre have decided to run two more camps over the Easter holidays.Great mini-adventures await your children where they get to learn new life skills and make new friends doing everything from building their own rafts to kayaking on Gartan Lake….AND staying overnight.Gartan is running a two-day Muckabout Camp on tomorrow for 2 days – the 15th – 16th and again next week, on Tuesday 23rd until Wednesday 24th April. (Cost €70). For more information log on to www.gartan.com or call 07491 37032 to reserve a place.The 2 day MUCKABOUT stay at Gartan15th – 16th & 23rd – 24th AprilTuesday 10.00 Obstacle course, a real blast, and VERY mucky Raft Building – learn the ropes and build your own! Climbing Wall FUN-damentalsWednesday – Kayaking with a difference!! Try orienteering on the lakeMountain bikingLearn really KOOL mountain biker skillsArchery & Orienteering 16.00 Home again!! With all your wet, dirty stuff ☺Includes the overnight, breakfast, 1 x lunch & dinner !Take packed lunch with you for Day 1 please!MAD PRICES for these new courses! Get a group of 10 or more together and we’ll give you 10% discount.SENSATIONAL EASTER MUCKABOUT OVERNIGHT COURSES AT GARTAN was last modified: April 14th, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:gartanGartan Outdoor CentreMuckaboutOutd
With the approval of Measure Y, the fourth school-construction bond since 1997, the Los Angeles Unified School District has clearly won the trust of the public. Now it must work to keep that trust. The overwhelming majority of voters who approved Measure Y did so at great personal cost. Over the next 25 years, the bond will increase property tax bills by an average of $27 a year per $100,000 of assessed value. That’s more than $150 on the median-price house, and there’s hundreds of dollars more a year to cover the previous bond issues. For that kind of sacrifice, the taxpayers deserve a good return on their investment. They should expect nothing less than that the LAUSD deliver on all the promises it made in advance of Tuesday’s election. First among those is the construction of 60 new schools and the renovation of hundreds more by 2012, a mere seven years away. Next is the promise to end year-round schooling and busing – the ostensible reason for approving Measure Y and all the other bond issues in the first place. That goal should be especially doable, seeing that enrollment is declining. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWalnut’s Malik Khouzam voted Southern California Boys Athlete of the Week The district must also make good on its commitment to focus on building smaller learning communities, not the behemoth, warehouse schools of the past. Charter schools, in particular, must figure prominently in the LAUSD’s future. And the district needs to develop a real program to integrate schools into community life. But perhaps the most important of the LAUSD’s campaign promises is that Measure Y would be the last of its kind. After four bond measures totaling $14 billion, the district should have no reason – and would likely garner very little support – if it were to hit up the taxpayers again any time soon. Trust only goes so far.
This article is only available to GBA Prime Members Sign up for a free trial and get instant access to this article as well as GBA’s complete library of premium articles and construction details. GBA published an energy quiz in 2009, and another one in 2011. It looks like we’re overdue for another installment.Answers are provided at the bottom of this column; don’t peek until you’ve finished the quiz.1. True or false: In freezing climates, a drainback solar hot water system circulates ordinary water (without any antifreeze) through its solar collectors.(a) True.(b) False.2. Which of the following statements best describes the “cold OSB problem”?(a) OSB sheathing is more at risk when stud cavities are filled with thick insulation than thin insulation.(b) When OSB gets very cold, the adhesive that binds the wood flakes may fail.(c) OSB can fail if it is covered on the exterior with a thick layer of rigid foam.(d) Researchers have not succeeded in developing an OSB sleeping bag.3. The International Residential Code includes a table listing prescriptive requirements for insulation and windows. The column labeled “fenestration U-factor” shows:(a) Minimum U-factors for windows.(b) Maximum U-factors for windows.(c) The confusion rate for readers with low Understanding Factors (i.e., low U-factors) who are forced to decipher code documents.4. Which of these statements is true?(a) No roof assembly can dry to the exterior.(b) All roof assemblies can dry to the exterior.(c) Some roof assemblies can dry to the exterior.(d) Roofs in Seattle are always wet.5. Which of these statements is most likely to be true for a certified Passivhaus?(a) The house has Zehnder windows, a Siga heat-recovery ventilator, and Intus tape.(b) The house has Intus windows, a Zehnder heat-recovery ventilator, and Siga tape.(c) The house has Siga windows, an Intus heat-recovery ventilator, and Zehnder tape.(d) The windows cost too much.6. Compared to exhaust-only ventilation systems, heat-recovery ventilation (HRV) systems have several advantages. Which… Start Free Trial Already a member? Log in
Why it matters“OK, that’s all well and good,” you’re thinking about now. “But what does this mean to me?”Here’s why it’s important to understand the distinction between these three levels of the building enclosure. Products have ratings. Sometimes it’s the material that’s rated. Sometimes it’s an assembly. And sometimes shady salespeople try to confuse prospects by blurring the lines between what was rated.Let’s take the case of foil-faced bubble wrap. It’s a product made up of a couple of materials: plastic and aluminum foil. But when used in the building enclosure, it’s only one part of an assembly.By itself, foil-faced bubble wrap has an R-value of about R-1, almost entirely due to the air trapped in the plastic bubbles. Yet go to a trade show and you’ll see sellers of these products claiming much higher numbers. At the Southeast Building Conference a few years ago I asked a foil-faced bubble wrap seller what the R-value of his product was. He claimed a whopping R-15.4.No! That’s not for the bubble wrap itself. That’s for bubble wrap in a particular assembly, and I’m skeptical even of that. Martin Holladay covered this topic really well in his article, “Stay Away from Foil-Faced Bubble Wrap.” (See especially the section of his article titled, “Blurring the line between product R-values and assembly R-values.”)Of course, R-value isn’t the only place you need to understand the distinction between material, assembly, and enclosure. Here are a few others:Windows. U-factor and solar heat gain ratings apply to the whole assembly, not just the glass.Blower door tests. Done for a whole enclosure. Permeance. Individual product ratings must be combined with the other materials in an assembly to find the net drying capacity of an assembly.An assembly problem or a material problem?Here on GBA, Peter Yost recently explained an interesting failure on his home. (It’s the “OK, Mr. Building Scientist,” which you should go read if you haven’t yet.)He had mold growing on his fairly new wood clapboard siding. The first thing most people with some understanding of building science would look for is a moisture problem. Maybe there’s a failure in the drainage plane, or maybe the builder should have used a vented rainscreen, or…In his case, though, the culprit wasn’t a problem with an assembly. It was a material problem. I won’t spoil it for you, though. Go read it now and find out what caused his mold.A blower door test won’t tell you how tight an assembly isHere’s one final example to help you understand materials, assemblies, and enclosures. Blower door testing tells you how tight a whole building enclosure is. It doesn’t tell you how tight each wall assembly or window or floor or ceiling is. You could have a really airtight enclosure overall and still have a failure in one location if a lot of your air leakage happens at that one place. Blower doors don’t tell you how good individual assemblies are. That’s why visual inspections are still necessary.The building enclosure is what determines how well a building will perform. To get a good building enclosure, though, you need to use good assemblies. And for the assemblies to perform, they’ve got to be made with good materials. Allison Bailes of Decatur, Georgia, is a speaker, writer, building science consultant, and the author of the Energy Vanguard Blog. You can follow him on Twitter at @EnergyVanguard. RELATED ARTICLES Understanding Air Barriers, Vapor Barriers, and Drainage PlanesGBA Encyclopedia: The Building EnvelopeHow to Become a Building Enclosure Control FreakThe Importance of Defining the Building EnclosureAll About Water-Resistive BarriersDo I Need a Vapor Retarder?Vapor Retarders and Vapor BarriersQuestions and Answers About Air BarriersBlower Door BasicsLstiburek: Air Barrier or Vapor Barrier? When you approach the subject of building science, especially regarding heat, air, and moisture flows through a building enclosure, it’s easy to get confused. There’s a lot to learn: blower door testing, insulation grading, R-value, vapor permeance, radiant barriers, combustion safety, solar heat gain coefficients, and on and on. That’s why we break things down into simpler pieces. In science, that process has led to all kinds of discoveries (atoms, nuclei, quarks, organs, cells, bacteria…).In building science, the first big breakdown that I find helps people grasp the basic ideas is seeing the house as a combination of the mechanical systems and the building enclosure. I heard an analogy on the radio once that helps make sense of this: Your HVAC system is the faucet; the building enclosure is the cup. The mechanical systems are very important, of course, but they depend on the quality of the building enclosure. And that’s where another important classification clarifies things.The building enclosure is the boundary between the conditioned space and various types of unconditioned space (outdoors, garage, attic…). It’s a key concept in building science and in understanding the house as a system. This is Building Science 101. But there’s a hierarchy here. We should be thinking of this in three levels:MaterialAssemblyEnclosureThe enclosure includes floors, walls, and ceilings. Each of those components is typically made up of assemblies. And assemblies are made of materials.